Laser Material Deposition

Our Service

In Laser Material Deposition (LMD), a laser beam melts the surface of a component locally. At the same time a metallic filler material is guided into the melt pool and completely melted there. Depending on the process control and process variant, layers can be applied in one layer with form-fit connections, low heat input and layer thicknesses between 0.01 mm and 1.5 mm. Since LMD can apply multiple layers, geometries of great complexity and dimensions can be manufactured additively.

Many industrial sectors can make use of the advantages laser material deposition offers: in wear and corrosion protection, repair as well as additive manufacturing. Our range of services covers the entire development chain from generating specific ideas and consulting through developing customized processes and system technology to process transfer to customers’ systems. A broad spectrum of available systems engineering, analysis capacity and extensive development know-how allow us to efficiently implement a wide variety of projects.

EHLA coating process for hydraulic cylinders.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany / Volker Lannert.

EHLA coating process for hydraulic cylinders.

Coaxial powder nozzle with changeable tips.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

Coaxial powder nozzle with changeable tips.

Repair of turbomachinery components.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany / Volker Lannert.

Repair of turbomachinery components.

Wear and corrosion protection

  • Extreme high-speed Laser Material Deposition (EHLA)
  • Layers from 0.01 mm to 0.25 mm
  • Metal matrix composites, e.g. carbide-containing layers
  • Surface rates of up to 1000 cm2/min

Additive manufacturing and repair

  • Reverse engineering
  • CAx process chains including NC-path planning, process management strategies and adaptive postprocessing
  • Production of volumes on existing semi-finished products and components by hybrid additive manufacturing
  • Deposition of hard-to-weld alloys, e.g. nickel- and titanium-based alloys
  • Repair of turbomachinery components
  • Repair of tools, molds, engine and transmission components

System technology

  • Customized modular powder feed nozzles with very high powder efficiency
  • Powder supply accessories, e.g. powder distributors, cyclones, switches
  • Coaxial-wire feed optics
  • Integration, evaluation and networking of sensors for LMD in Industry 4.0 applications
  • Process monitoring and control
  • Combined Laser Material Deposition and Laser Powder Bed Fusion systems for additive manufacturing
  •  Qualification of robotic systems for LMD
  • Highly dynamic systems for additive manufacturing with the EHLA process
  • Validation, testing and benchmarking of system technology
  • Advice and support in the design and construction of systems engineering for LMD in cooperation with various equipment manufacturers

 

Machining head with coaxial wire feed.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

Machining head with coaxial wire feed.

Additive manufacturing using robot technology.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

Additive manufacturing using robot technology.

Three-jet powder nozzle.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany / Volker Lannert.

Three-jet powder nozzle.

Brochures

Our brochures offer a quick view onto the service portfolio “Laser Material Deposition“. Find more detailed information in the “project results“ tab.

 

"Effective Protection against Wear and Corrosion with the »EHLA-Process«"

 

"Laser Technology for Repair and Functionalization"

 

"System Engineering for Powder-Based Laser Cladding"

Branches

Laser technology can solve demanding tasks in many different industries. Whether as a tool in automotive production, as measuring equipment in the environmental sector, as a diagnostic or therapeutic instrument in medical technology or as a communication medium in space technology, the laser provides multiple uses with high productivity and high efficiency.

Read up about the innovations of the Fraunhofer ILT in a few selected industries and convince yourself!

Project Results

Here you will find a selection of approved project results (annual reports), as PDF downloads, from the range of products and services on “Laser Material Deposition“ from the last few years.

Publications

Ünsal, I., Hama-Saleh, R., Sviridov, A., Bambach, M., Weisheit, A., Schleifenbaum, J.H.:
Mechanical Properties of Sheet Metal Components with Local Reinforcement Produced by Additive Manufacturing.
21st International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM 2018, 23 -25 April 2018 Palermo, Italy. AIP Conference Proceedings 1960(1), 160028- (6 S.) (2018)

Pirch, N., Niessen, M., Linnenbrink, S., Schopphoven, T., Gasser, A., Poprawe, R., Schöler, C.,  Arntz, D., Schulz, W.:
Temperature field and residual stress distribution for laser metal deposition.
JLA 30 (3), 32503- (5 S.), (2018)

Lotfian, S., Rolink, G., Weisheit, A., Palm, M.:
Chemically graded Fe–Al/steel samples fabricated by laser metal deposition.
MRS Advances 2(26), 1393-1398 (2017)

Kürnsteiner, P., Wilms, M.B., Weisheit, A., Barriobero-Vila, P., Jägle, E., Raabe, D.:
Massive nanoprecipitation in an Fe-19Ni-xAl maraging steel triggered by the intrinsic heat treatment during laser metal deposition
Acta Materialia 129, 52-60 (2017)

Bambach, M., Sviridov, A., Weisheit, A., Schleifenbaum, J.H.:
Case Studies on Local Reinforcement of Sheet Metal Components by Laser
Additive Manufacturing. Metals 7, 113 (14 S.) (2017)

Zhong, C., Pirch, N., Gasser, A., Poprawe, R., Schleifenbaum, J.H.:
The Influence of the Powder Stream on High-Deposition-Rate Laser Metal Deposition with Inconel 718.
Metals (7), 443 (13 S.) (2017)

Wilms, M.B., Biermann, T., Rolink, G., Weisheit, A., Poprawe, R.:
Growing of bulk sapphire single crystals using laser material deposition.
JLA 29 (2) 022013 (7 S.) (2017)

Boehr, S., Nolis, P., Brenner, A., Reininghaus, M., Lamß, M., Müller, B.:
Laserbasierte Fertigungstechniken und additive Fertigung.
Galvanotechnik 108, 1672-1677 (6 S.) (2017)

Pirch, N., Linnenbrink, S., Gasser, A., Wissenbach, K, Poprawe, R.:
Analysis of track formation during laser metal deposition
J. Laser Appl. 29 (2) 22506 (5 S.) (2017)

Alkhayat, M., Gasser, A., Arntz, K., Klingbeil, N., Vollmer, T. :
Additive Fertigung "Vom Pulver zum Fertigteil" In: Ressourceneffizienz
Neugebauer, Reimund (Hrsg.) Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Vieweg. 151-152 (2017)

Pirch, N., Niessen, M., Linnenbrink, S., Schopphoven, T., Gasser, A., Poprawe, R., Schöler, C., Arntz, D., Schulz, W.:
Temperature field and residual stress distribution for laser metal deposition
36th Int. Congr. on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO, Oct. 22—26, 2017, Atlanta, GA USA. Paper 1204, (5 S.) (2017)

Klocke, F., Poprawe, R., Schmitt, R., Gasser, A., Arntz, K., Grosse Böckmann, M., Klingbeil, N., Kerkhoff, J., Vollmer, T., Wegener, M., Alkhayat, M.:
Investigation and assessment of a laser addiditve manufacturing based process chain by the example of an injection mold
Proc. of the 3rd Fraunhofer Direct Digital Manufacturing Conference (DDMC16), Berlin, Germany (5 S.) (2016)

Schopphoven, T., Gasser, A., Wissenbach, K., Poprawe, R.:
Investigations on ultra-high-speed laser material deposition as alternative for hard chrome plating and thermal spraying
J. Laser Appl. 28, 022501 (9 S.) (2016)

Klocke, F., Vollmer, T., Klingbeil, N., Wegener, M., Alkhayat, M., Lahl, M., Kluth, A. :
E3-Produktion: Ultrakurze Prozessketten bewerten und verbessern
ZWF – Zs. Wirtschaftl. Fabrikbetrieb 2016 (09), 527-530 (2016)

Zhong, C., Gasser, A., Kittel, J., Wissenbach, K., Poprawe, R.:
Improvement of material performance of Inconel 718 formed by high deposition-rate laser metal deposition
Materials Design 98, 128-134 (2016)

Zhong, C., Gasser, A., Kittel, J., Fu, J., Ding, Y., Poprawe, R.:
Microstructures and tensile properties of Inconel 718 formed by high deposition-rate laser metal deposition
J. Laser Appl. 28, 22010 (8 S.) (2016)

Hong, C., Gu, D., Dai, D., Cao, S., Alkhayat, M., Qingbo, J., Gasser, A., Weisheit, A., Kelbassa, I., Zhong, M., Poprawe, R.:
High-temperature oxidation performance and its mechanism of TiC/Inconel 625 composites prepared by laser metal deposition additive manufacturing
Journal of Laser Applications 27 (1), S17005 (11 S.) (2015)

Hong, C., Gu, D., Dai, D., Alkhayat, M., Urban, W., Yuan, P., Cao, S., Gasser, A., Weisheit, A., Kelbassa, I., Zhong, M., Poprawe, R.:
Laser additive manufacturing of ultrafine TiC particle reinforced Inconel 625 based composite parts : Tailored microstructures and enhanced performance
Materials Science and Engineering A 635, 118-128 (2015)

Zhong, C., Biermann, T., Gasser, A., Poprawe, R.:
Experimental study of effects of main process parameters on porosity, track geometry, deposition rate, and powder efficiency for high deposition rate laser metal deposition
Journal of Laser Applications 27 (4), 42003 (9 S.)(2015)

Zhong, C., Gasser, A., Schopphoven, T., Poprawe, R.:
Experimental study of porosity reduction in high deposition-rate laser material deposition
Optics Laser Techol. 75, 87-92 (2015)

Gasser, A.:
Fertigen und Instandsetzen mit generativen Laserverfahren
MM Maschinenmarkt 38, 44-47 (2014)

Gu, D., Hong, C., Jia, Q., Dai, D., Gasser, A., Weisheit, A., Kelbassa, I., Zhong, M., Poprawe, R.:
Combined strengthening of multi-phase and graded interface in laser additive manufactured TiC/Inconel 718 composites
J. Phys. D 47, (4) 45309- (2014)

Jiang, D., Hong, C., Zhong, M., Alkhayat, M., Weisheit, A., Gasser, A., Zhang, H., Kelbassa, I., Poprawe, R. :
Fabrication of nano-TiCp reinforced Inconel 625 composite coatings by partial dissolution of micro-TiCp through laser cladding energy input control
Surf. Coat. Technol. 249, 125-131 (2014)

Maischner, D., Ocylok, S., Becker, D., Weisheit, A.:
Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Laserauftragschweißens und des Selektiven Laserschmelzen im Werkzeugbau für Bauteile aus Kupfer im Bereich der Spritzgießtechnik
Metall (11), 456-458 (2014)

Zhong, M., Jiang, D., Zhang, H., Hong, C., Weisheit, A,., Kelbassa, I.:
Fabrication of nanoparticulate reinforced metal matrix composites by laser cladding
J. Laser Appl. 26, 022007 (10 S.) (2014)

Bi, G., Sun, C. N., Gasser, A.:
Study on influential factors for process monitoring and control in laser aided additive manufacturing

J. Mat. Proc. Technol. 213 (3), 463-468 (2013)

Hong, C., Gu, D., Dai, D., Gasser, A., Weisheit, A., Kelbassa, I., Zhong, M., Poprawe, R.:
Laser metal deposition of TiC/Inconel 718 composites with tailored interfacial microstructures

Opt. Laser Technol. 54, 98-109 (2013)

Weisheit, A., Dobrzanski, D., Valentin, M., Ocylok, S., Wissenbach, K., Kelbassa, I.:
Laser additive manufacturing - a new manufacturing technology for parts of composites with refractory metals?

18. Plansee-Seminar 2013. Int. Conf. on Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, RM 39, pp. 1-12 (2013)

Bobzin, K., Kopp, N., Warda, T., Schulz, C., Rolink, G., Weisheit, A.:
Investigation of wear and corrosion protection of AlSi20 coatings produced by thermal spraying and laser cladding on AZ31B
Thermal Spray 2012: Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference (ITSC), (ASM International), 6 S. (2012)

Müller, S., Pries, H., Dilger, K., Ocylok, S., Weisheit, A., Kelbassa, I.:
Reparaturschweißen von Druckgießformen durch das Laserauftragschweißen
Giesserei 56, Nr. 5, 9 S., (2012)

Ocylok, S.,  Kelbassa, I.:
Study on cracks in laser direct-cladded titanium layer on low carbon steel
Acta Metallurgica Sinica Vol. 48 No. 2, pp.142–147 (2012)

Rolink, G., Weisheit, A., Wissenbach, K., Schulz, C., Bobzin, K., Kopp, N., Warda, T.:
Impact of different coating systems on corrosion and wear resistance generated by laser cladding
9th International Conference on Magnesium Alloys and their Applications, July 8-12, 2012, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, 6 S. (2012)

Flemmer, J., Pirch, N., Wissenbach, K., Gasser, A.:
Auftragen nach Ist-Daten.
Werkzeug & Formenbau Nr. 5, 42-45, (2011)

Witzel, J., Schrage, J., Gasser, A., Kelbassa, I.:
Additive manufacturing of a blade-integrated disk by laser metal deposition.
ICALEO. 30. Int. Congr. on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, October 23-27, 2011. Paper 502, 7 S., (2011)

Witzel, J., Stannard, S., Gasser, A., Kelbassa, I.:
Characterization of micro/macrostructure of laser cladded Inconel 718 with increased deposition rates as related to the mechanical properties.
ICALEO. 30. Int. Congr. on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, October 23-27, 2011. Paper 1401, 7 S., (2011)

Witzel, J., Schopphoven, T., Gasser, A., Kelbassa, I.:
Development of a model for prediction of material properties of laser cladded Inconel 718 as related to porosity in the bulk material.
ICALEO. 30. Int. Congr. on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, October 23-27, 2011. Paper 505, 8 S., (2011)

Burbaum, B., Hong, C., Gasser, A., Kelbassa, I.:
Advantages of adaptive optics for laser metal deposition in comparison to conventional optics
Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics (PICALO), Shangri-La Hotel, Wuhan, China, March 23-25, 2010. Paper 1008, 5 S., (2010)

Gasser, A., Backes, G., Kelbassa, I., Weisheit, A., Wissenbach, K.:
Laser additive manufacturing
Laser Technik J. 7, Nr 2, 58-63, (2010)

Witzel, J., Kelbassa, I., Gasser, A., Backes, G.:
Increasing the deposition rate of Inconel 718 for LMD
ICALEO 2010. 29th International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro Optics, Anaheim/Ca., September 26-30, 2010. PAPER 806, 7 S., (2010)

Biermann, T., Backes, G., Gasser, A., Weisheit, A.:
Adapted powder feed nozzles for different laser cladding applications
The Laser User Nr. 57, 28-29, (2009)

Khanna, A.S., Kumari, S., Kanungo, S., Gasser, A.:
Hard coatings based on thermal spray and laser cladding
Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mat. 27, Nr 2, 485-490, (2009)

Burbaum, B., Albus, P., Kelbassa, I.:
Laser cladding of mesh structures on HPT liner and NGV parts
27th In. Congr. on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, ICALEO, Temecula/Ca., 3 S., (2008)

Kelbassa, I., Albus, P., Dietrich, J., Wilkes, J.:
Manufacture and repair of aero engine components using laser technology
Proc. 3rd Pacific Int. Conf. on Application of Lasers and Optics
pp. 208-212, (2008)

Albus, P., Burbaum, B., Kelbassa, I.:
Laser cladding of mesh structures on HPT liner and NGV parts
Proc. of 4th Int. WLT-Conf. on Lasers in Manufacturing 2007, Munich, June, 3 S., (2007)

Kelbassa, I., Walther, K., Trippe, L., Meiners, W., Over, C.:
Potentials of manufacture and repair of nickel base turbine components used in aero engines and power plants by laser metal deposition and laser drilling
J. Aerospace Power 22, 739-748, (2007)

Kreutz, E. W., Willach, J., Kelbassa, I., Keutgen, S., Poprawe, R.:
Laser Technologies for Manufacturing and Repair of Rotating Machinery Power Plant Components
Proceedings of ISROMAC 11, 8 S. (2006)

Kelbassa, I., Weisheit, A., Wissenbach, K., Hermes, V.:
Laser metal deposition of tial alloys
Proceedings of PICALO 2, 5 S., (2006)

Kelbassa, I., Walther, K., Trippe, L., Meiners, W., Over, C.:
Potentials of manufacture and repair of nickel base turbine components used in aero engines and power plants by laser metal deposition and laser drilling
Proceedings of ISJPPE 2025, 9 S. , (2006)

Kelbassa, I., Over, C., Trippe, L., Kreutz, E. W., Wissenbach, K.:
Reconditioning of nickel base HPT blades and vanes used in aero engines and power plant gas turbines by combination of direct laser forming, laser metal deposition and laser drilling
Proceedings of PICALO, 7S. , (2006)