Our Service

A multitude of laser applications can be optimized or even implemented with simulation and modeling tools. Fraunhofer ILT develops software for simulation and modeling, in particular for processes in laser material processing, ranging from laser-based cutting and welding through drilling and structuring all the way to additive laser production. In doing this, the institute aims to better understand the processes involved, to increase productivity and quality as well as to reduce costs and minimize resources. Among other things, it uses numerical tools and methods of model reduction or meta-modeling as well as multi-scale simulations. For the smart-device segment, the institute also integrates its laser-process know-how into corresponding apps, which are available as customer simulation tools.

With the help of its simulation tools, Fraunhofer ILT broadens the understanding of laser-based ablation mechanisms, the radiation propagation in the material volume as well as the material damage caused by the use of lasers. The software solutions it has developed are suitable for process simulations in the use of dielectric materials such as glass, semiconducting materials – e.g. for applications in the solar or electronics industry – aqueous solutions or biological tissues.

The range of services includes not only application-specific simulation and modeling but also individual consultation.

Stress distribution during Laser Material Deposition.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

Stress distribution during Laser Material Deposition.

Fine cutting - experiment and simulation.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

Fine cutting - experiment and simulation.

Von Mises’ yield criterion for an SLM component.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.

Von Mises’ yield criterion for an SLM component.


  • Concepts for controlling laser manufacturing processes
  • Resonator design for high power lasers

Development of Processes and Components

  • Optics, beam guiding and beam forming
  • Generation of defined polarization
  • Heat conduction and thermomechanics
  • Phase change: melting, recast and vaporization
  • Fluid dynamics of melt flows
  • Simulation of gas flows and nozzle design


  • Beam diagnostics, process control and monitoring
  • Image processing, analysis of experimental data

Process Quality

  • Roughness, ripple and dross in cutting
  • Low distortion welding with well-defined welding depth
  • Minimization of heat affection and crack formation
  • Process windows and limits
  • Sensitivity and robustness
  • Analysis of process stability


  • Dynamical simulation of processes
  • In-house High Performance Computing (HPC) cluster
  • Computational steering
  • Efficient numerical methods
  • Metamodelling
  •  Process optimization

Brochures and Flyers

Our brochures and flyers offer a quick view onto the service portfolio “Simulation“. Find more detailed information in the “project results“ tab.


Brochure “Modelling and Simulation“


Brochure “Modelling and Simulation of Laser Processing of Glass“

Project Results

Here you will find a selection of approved project results (annual reports), as PDF downloads, from the range of products and services on “Simulation“ from the last few years.


Aden, M.:
Influence of the laser-beam distribution on the seam dimensions for laser-transmission welding:
A simulative approach
Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process, Online first (11 S.) (2016)

Bürgermeister, L., Hermann, M., Fehér, K., Molano Lopez, C., Pich, A., Hannen, J., Vogt, F., Schulz, W.:
Modelling pH-optimized degradation of microgel-functionalized polyesters
J. Healthcare Eng. 2016 (8 S.) (2016)

Sun, M., Eppelt, U., Hartmann, C., Schulz, W., Zhu, J., Lin, Z.:
Damage morphology and mechanism in ablation cutting of thin glass sheets with picosecond pulsed lasers
Opt. & Laser Technol. 80, 227-236 (2016)

Eppelt, U., Al Khawli, T.:
Metamodeling of laser cutting
AIP Conference Proceedings 1648, S. 710002 (2015)

Hermanns, T., Thombansen, U., Stoyanov, S.:
Modelling for self-optimization in laser cutting
AIP Conference Proceedings 1648, 710003  (2015)

Sun, M., Eppelt, U., Schulz, W., Zhu, J.:
Mechanism of internal modification in bulk borosilicate glass with picosecond laser pulses at high repitition rates
Proc. SPIE 9532, 953214 (13 S.) (2015)

Bürgermeister, L., Romero López, F. , Schulz, W.:
Physical and mathematical modeling of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy
J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 071411 (10 S.) (2014)

Reinhard, R., Al Khawli, T., Eppelt, U., Meisen, T., Schilberg, D., Schulz, W., Jeschke, S.:
The contribution of virtual production intelligence to laser cutting planning processes
In: Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability, Proc. of the 5th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2013), October 6th - 9th 2013, Munich, 117-124 (2013)

Reinhard, R., Eppelt, U., Al-Khawly, T., Meisen, T., Schilberg, D., Schulz, W., Jeschke, S.:
How virtual production intelligence can improve laser-cutting planning processes
22nd International Conference on Production Research, ICPR 2013. July 28th - August 1st, 2013, Iguassu Falls, Brazil. Iguassu Falls (7 S.) (2013)

Sun, M., Eppelt, U., Russ, S., Hartmann, C., Siebert, C., Zhu, J., Schulz, W.:
Numerical analysis of laser ablation and damage in glass with multiple picosecond laser pulses
Opt. Expr. 21, 7858-7867 (2013)

Sun, M., Eppelt, U., Schulz, W., Zhu, J.:
Role of thermal ionization in internal modification of bulk borosilicate glass with picosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates
Opt. Mat. Expr. 3, 1716-1726 (2013)

Thombansen, U., Purrio, M., Buchholz, G., Hermanns, T., Molitor, T., Willms, K., Schulz, W., Reisgen, U.:
Measurement of process variables in melt based manufacturing processes
In: ISMTII 2013 - The 11th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments
Aachen /Braunschweig July 1st-5th 2013 (6 S.) (2013)

Vossen, G., Hermanns, T., Schüttler, J.:
Analysis and optimal control for free melt flow boundaries in laser cutting with distributed radiation
ZAMM Zs. Angew. Math. Mech. (Early view) 20 S. (2013)

Bürgermeister, L., Mikalauskaite, R., Vossen, G., Schulz, W.:
Antimikrobielle Photodynamische Therapie - Analyse des Ablaufs der chemischen Prozesse
Automatisierungstechnische Verfahren für die Medizin
10. Workshop 29./30. März 2012, pp.13-14, (2012)

Thombansen, U., Beckers, M., Buchholz, G., Hermanns, T., Molitor, T.,
Willms, K., Reisgen, U., Schulz, W.:
Signal processing for self-optimising manufacturing systems in
laser-cutting and gas-metal-arc-welding

1st Joint International Symposium on System-Integrated
Intelligence, 114-116, (2012)

Poprawe, R., Schulz, W., Schmitt, R.:
Hydrodynamics of material removal by melt expulsion: Perspectives of laser cutting and drilling
Physics Procedia 5, Nr 1,1-18, 2010

Schulz, W., Nießen, M., Vossen, G., Schüttler, J.:
Modelling and process monitoring of laser processing
Fraunhofer Allianz Numerische Simulation NUSIM: 1. Int. Conf. Multiphysics Simulation - Advanced Methods for Industrial Engineering June 22-23, 2010 in Bonn, 19 S., (2010)

Schulz, W., Pfeiffer, S., Zäh, M., Föckerer, T., Schober, A.:
Untersuchung der strukturellen Stabilität von Modellen zur Schweißverzugssimulation bei Stahlwerkstoffen
Forschungsbericht FOSTA, Forschung für die Praxis P 708, 2010. 71 S. ISBN 3-937567-77-1

Vossen, G., Schüttler, J., Nießen, M.:
Optimization of partial differential equations for minimizing the roughness of laser cutting surfaces
In: Diehl, M., Glineur, F., Jarlebring, E., Michiels, W. (Eds.): Recent Advances in Optimization and its Applications in Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 521-530. ISBN 978-3-642-12598-0, (2010)

W. Schulz, U. Eppelt:
Basic concepts of laser drilling
In: The Theory of Laser Materials Processing: Heat and Mass Transfer in Modern Technology. Ed. J. M. Dowden
Dordrecht: Springer Series in Materials Science, Vol. 119
pp. 129-165, (2009)

J. Schüttler, J. Lose, R. Schmitt, W. Schulz:
Exploring processing domain boundaries of complex production processes using a metamodeling approach
12th CIRP Conf. on Modelling of Machining Operations, May 7-8, 2009, San Sebastian (Spain). Ed.: P.J. Arrazola. Vol. 2
Paris: CIRP 2009, pp. 835-841, (2009)

W. Schulz, M. Nießen, U. Eppelt, K. Kowalick:
Simulation of laser cutting
In: The Theory of Laser Materials Processing: Heat and Mass Transfer in Modern Technology. Ed. J. M. Dowden
Dordrecht: Springer Series in Materials Science, Vol. 119
pp. 21-69, (2009)

N. Pirch, K. Wissenbach:
Mechanisms during laser bending
J. Laser Appl. 20, Nr 3, 135-139, (2008)