Polishing

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Our Service#

Polishing with laser radiation is based on the remelting of a thin surface layer of the workpiece and smoothing of the surface due to the interfacial tension. The innovation of laser polishing lies in the fundamentally different mode of action (remelting) compared to conventional grinding and polishing processes (ablation). The process is suitable for many metals, glasses and thermoplastics.

Depending on the material and the initial roughness, this process generally achieves a roughness on metals in the range of Ra = 0.1 to 0.4 μm. On optical glass, a roughness of Ra <1 nm is even possible.

Possible applications are with metals in e.g. mechanical engineering, the automotive industry, tool and mold making and medical technology. For glass, the main application is in processing aspheres and freeform optics. In the case of plastics, printed components are especially interesting. The special advantages of the laser-based process are the automated processing of complex 3D surfaces with high process speed.

Microfluidics made of fused silica (5x5x7 mm^3) manufactured by SLE (left) and laser-polished (right).
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.
Microfluidics made of fused silica (5x5x7 mm^3) manufactured by SLE (left) and laser-polished (right).
Laser-polished active surface cutout of a slide for die casting.
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.
Laser-polished active surface cutout of a slide for die casting.
Laser-polished sphere made of BK7 (radius of curvature 30 mm).
© Fraunhofer ILT, Aachen, Germany.
Laser-polished sphere made of BK7 (radius of curvature 30 mm).

Applications Metals

  • Tools, dies and mold making
  • Implants
  • Design surfaces with multi gloss level
  • Polished and structured surfaces
  • Further applications

Applications Optics

  • Aspheric and free-form optics made from glass and fused silica
  • Spectacle lenses made from plastics

Laser Polishing Machines

  • Machine tools for laser polishing of metals, glasses and plastics
  • Concepts for machines with work piece weights from 0.1 to 200 kg
  • 5+3-axis processing (axes system and laser scanner)
  • CAM-NC data chain for 5+3-axis processing
  • Fully automated polishing

Your Application

  • Feasibility studies
  • Test and adaption of laser polishing for your application
  • Processing of test parts
  • Processing of small series

Brochures#

Our brochures provide quick insight into our range of products and services on ”Polishing”. Further information and detailed project results can be found in the ”Project Results” tab.

“Laser Polishing of Plastics“

“Laser Polishing of Metals“

“Laser Polishing and Ablation for the Production of Glass Optics”

“WaveShape - Surface Structuring by Laser Remelting”

“Processing Glass with Laser Radiation“

“Software Tools for Laser Material Processing“

Branches#

Laser technology can solve demanding tasks in many different industries. Whether as a tool in automotive production, as measuring equipment in the environmental sector, as a diagnostic or therapeutic instrument in medical technology or as a communication medium in space technology, the laser provides multiple uses with high productivity and high efficiency.

Read up about the innovations of the Fraunhofer ILT in a few selected industries and convince yourself!

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Publications#

Trum, C., Jung, M., Schmidbauer, B., Sitzberger, S., Willenborg, E., Rascher, R.:
Hybrid-process-chain for polishing optical glass lenses – HyoptO.
SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 24 AUGUST - 4 SEPTEMBER 2020, Online Only.
Proceedings Volume 11487, FOptical Manufacturing and Testing XIII, 114871L, (2020). 11487, 1-10 (2020)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2568400

Jung, M., Trum, C., Schmidbauer, B., Willenborg, E., Rascher, R.:
Non-ablative removal of sub surface damages in ground optical glass substrates by controlled melting of thin surface layers using CO2-laser radiation.
Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing, 31.03. - 01.04.2020, Teisnach (Germany). Proc. SPIE 11478, Seventh European Seminar on Precision Optics Manufacturing, 1147804- (10 S.), (2020).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2564801

Braun, K., Willenborg, E., Schleifenbaum, J.H.:
Laser polishing as a new post process for 3D-printed polymer parts.
11th CIRP Conference on Photonic Technologies [LANE2020], 2020 Sept,7-10.
Procedia Cirp 94, 134-138 (2019).
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2020.09.026

Temmler, A., Comiotto, M., Ross, I., Kuepper, M., Liu, D.M., Poprawe, R.:
Surface structuring by laser remelting of 1.2379 (D2) for cold forging tools in automotive applications.
Journal of Laser Applications 31(2), 022017, (12 S.), (2019)
https://doi.org/10.2351/1.5070077

Kumstel, J., Lüken, S.:
Deburring and rounding of sheet metals and functionally relevant edges of parts using laser radiation.
5th International Conference on New Forming Technology ICNFT 2018, 18. Sept.- 21.Sept.2018, Bremen, Germany.
MATEC WEB of Conferences 190, 02003- (5 S.) (2018),
https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201819002003

Teller, M., Ross, I., Prünte, S., Temmler, A., Küpper, M., Poprawe, R., Schneider, J.M., Hirt, G.:
Probing the potential of structured and surface functionalized tools for dry cold forging of aluminium.
5th International Conference on New Forming Technology ICNFT 2018, 18. Sept.- 21.Sept.2018, Bremen, Germany.
MATEC WEB of Conferences 190, 14010- (7 S.) (2018),
https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201819014010

Teller, M., Ross, I., Temmler, A., Poprawe, R., Prünte, S., Schneider, J.M., Hirt, G.:
Investigation of Friction Conditions in Dry Metal Forming of Aluminum by Extended Conical Tube-Upsetting Tests.
Key Engineering Materials 767, 189-195 (2018)
https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.767.189

Ross, I., Temmler, A., Küpper, M., Prünte, S., Teller, M., Schneider, J.M., Poprawe, R.:
Laser Polishing of Cold Work Steel AISI D2 for Dry Metal Forming Tools: Surface Homogenization, Refinement and Preparation for Self-Assembled Monolayers.
Key Engineering Materials 767, 69-76 (2018)
https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.767.69

Teller, M., Prünte, S., Ross, I., Temmler, A.,  Schneider, J. M., Hirt, G.:
Tribological investigations of the applicability of surface functionalization for dry extrusion processes.
20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, 26–28 April 2017 Dublin, Ireland.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1896, 140001- (6 S.) (2017)
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5008157

Temmler, A., Roß, I., M. Cortina, M., Poprawe, R.:
Oberflächenfunktionalisierung des Werkstoffs 1.2379+ mittels Randschichtumschmelzen mit Laserstrahlung zur Entwicklung von angepassten Oberflächentopographien für das schmiermittelfreie Kaltfließpressen von Aluminium.
Dry Metal Forming 3, 62-72 (2017)

Teller, M., Hirt, G. Roß, I., Temmler, A., Poprawe, R., Prünte, S., Schneider, J.M.:
Konzept zur Bearbeitung und tribologischen Prüfung von Fließ-pressmatrizen für das Trockenumformen von Aluminium.
Dry Metal Forming, 3, 73-80 (2017)

Nüsser, C., Schneider, S.:
Influence of pulse duration and scanning direction on the deformation of edges during laser micro polishing.
Lasers in Manufacturing LIM 2017, Munich, June 26-29 2017. (11 S.) (2017)

Kumstel, J.:
Enhancement of the area rate for laser macro polishing.
Lasers in Manufacturing LIM 2017, Munich, June 26-29 2017. (8 S.) (2017)

Anemone, G., Weingarten, C., Al Taleb, A., Prieto, C., Farías, D.:
Ultrasmooth metal thin films on curved fused silica by laser polishing.
Appl. Phy. Let. 111, 181602 (4 S.) (2017)

Temmler, A., Küpper,M., Walochnik, M.A., Lanfermann, A., Schmickler, T.,  Bach,A., Greifenberg,T.,  Oreshkin, O., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K., Poprawe, R.:
Surface structuring by laser remelting of metals.
JLA 29(01), 012015 (12 S.) (2017)

Weingarten, C., Steenhusen, S., Hermans, M., Willenborg, E., Schleifenbaum, J.H.:
Laser polishing and 2PP structuring of inside microfluidic channels in fused silica.
Microfluid Nanofluid 21, 165 (9 S.) (2017)

Weingarten, C., Braun, K., Willenborg, E.:
Combination of Laser-based Process Steps for Optics Manufacturing
Optical Design and Fabrication 2017 (Freeform, IODC, OFT): Proceedings OSA Washington, D.C., 2017. Paper OTu3B.6 (3 S.) (2017)

Weingarten, C., Uluz, E., Schmickler, A., Braun, K., Willenborg, E., Temmler, A., Heidrich, S.:
Glass processing with pulsed CO2 laser radiation Appl. Opt. 56 (4), (4), 777-783 (2017)

Weingarten, C., Schmickler, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K., Poprawe, R.:
Laser polishing and laser shape correction of optical glass.
JLA 29 (1), 11702- (2017)

Teller, M., Hirt, G., Roß,I., Temmler, A.,Poprawe, R., Prünte, S.:
Abschätzung der umformtechnischen Grenzen des schmierstofffreien Kaltfließpressens von Aluminium anhand von Tribometerversuchen.
Dry Metal Forming 2, 56-61 (2016)

Kumstel, J.:
Polieren von SLM-Bauteilen mit kontinuierlicher Laserstrahlung (2015)
Neue Entwicklungen in der Additiven Fertigung.
Beiträge aus der wissenschaftlichen Tagung der Rapid.Tech 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (2015)

Heidrich, S., Weingarten, C., Uluz, E.; Poprawe, R.:
Glass processing with high power q-switch CO2 laser radiation,
Lasers in Manufacturing Conference 2015, Munich (2015)

Ross, I., Temmler, A., Willenborg, E., Poprawe, R., Teller, M.:
Investigation of the influence of laser surface modifications on the adhesive wear behavior in dry cold extrusion of aluminum
LIM 2015. Lasers in Manufacturing (LiM). Munich (2015)

Nüsser, C., Weingarten, C.:    
Polieren von Oberflächen mit Laserstrahlung
Laser Magazin, S.9-10, (2015)

Flemmer, J., Willenborg, E.:    
Simultaneous 9-Axis-Laser-Processing
10th ASME 2015 Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC2015). June 8-12, 2015 in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA (2015)

Temmler, A., Schmickler, T., Willenborg, E.:
Surface structuring by laser remelting of Inconel 718
LIM 2015. Lasers in Manufacturing (LiM). Munich (2015)

Ross, I., Kumstel, J., Bremen, S., Willenborg, E.:
Laser polishing of laser additive manufactured surfaces made from Inconel 718 and ASTM F75
Proceedings of Achieving Precision Tolerances in Additive Manufacturing. ASPE Spring Topical Meeting, April 26-29, 2015, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA (2015)

Ross, I., Temmler, A., Poprawe, R., Teller, M., Hirt, G., Prünte, S.:
Untersuchung zur Oberflächenmodifikation mittels Laserpolieren für das schmiermittelfreie Kaltfließpressen von Aluminium
Dry Metal Forming, S. 143-151 (2015)

Teller, M., Bambach, M., Hirt, G., Roß, I., Temmler, A., Poprawe,R., Bolvardi, H.,Prünte,S., Schneider, J.M.:
Methodik zur Entwicklung von interaktionsminimierten Oberflächen-schichten für das schmiermittelfreie Kaltfließpressen von Aluminium.
Dry Metal Forming  1, 34-41 (2015)

Flemmer, J., Ross, I., Willenborg, E., Fröba, H.:
Machine Tool and CAM-NC Data Chain for Laser Polishing Complex Shaped Parts
Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 260-267 (2015)

Heidrich, S., Willenborg, E., Weingarten, C., Temmler, A.:
Laser polishing and laser form correction of fused silica optics
Mat. Sci. Eng. Technol. 46 (7), 668-674 (2015)

Kumstel, J., Flemmer, J., Temmler, A.:
Laser polishing of metallic freeform surfaces
Proc. of the 4M/ICOMM2015 Conference,
Ed. by M. Annoni [u.a.]. Singapore: Research Publishing (2015)
pp. 352-355, ISBN 978-981-09-4609-8.

Kumstel, J., Biermann, M.:
Polieren von SLM-Bauteilen mit kontinuierlicher Laserstrahlung Proceedings RapidTech 2015, Fachforum "Wissenschaft",
Erfurt: Desotron Verl. (14 S.)(2015)
ISBN 978-3932875403

Teller, M., Bambach, M., Hirt, G., Ross, I., Temmler, A., Poprawe, R., Bolvardi, H., Prünte, S., Schneider, J.M.:
Investigation of the suitability of surface treatments for dry cold extrusion by process-oriented tribological testing.
International Conference on Material Forming, 18, 2015, Graz. ESAFORM 2015. Vol.1 :
Selected, peer reviewed papers from the 18th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, (Key engineering materials 651-653), 473-479 (2015)

Nüsser, C., Kumstel, J., Kierowski, T., Diatlov, A., Willenborg, E.:
Process- and Material-Induced Surface Structures During Laser Polishing
Advanced Engineering Materials 17, 268-277 (2015)

Oreshkin, O., Küpper, M., Temmler, A., Willenborg, E.:
Active reduction of waviness through processing with modulated laser power
Journal of Laser Applications 27 (2), 22004 (7 S.) (2015)

Weingarten, C., Heidrich, S., Wu, Y., Willenborg, E.:
Laser polishing of glass
Optifab 2015. Ed. by J. L. Bentley, S. Stoebenau. Rochester, N.Y., October 12-15, 2015, Proc. SPIE 9633. 963303 (10 S.) (2015)

Heidrich, S., Weingarten, C., Willenborg, E., Poprawe, R.:
Polishing and form correction with laser radiation
Optical Fabrication and Testing, Kohala Coast, Hawaii, United States, June 22-26, 2014. Fabrication Process Technology I (OTu1B.4) (3 S.) (2014). ISBN: 978-1-55752-747-9

Preussner, J., Oeser, S., Pfeiffer, W., Temmler, A., Willenborg, E.:
Microstructure and residual stresses of laser remelted surfaces of a hot work tool steel
International Journal of Materials Research 105 (4), 328-336 (2014)

Temmler, A., Walochnik, M. A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Surface structuring by remelting of titanium alloy TI6AL4V
In: Proceedings 33rd ICALEO International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro–Optics, October 19-23, 2014, San Diego, CA, USA
Paper ID 1401,ISBN 9781940168029 (10 S.) (2014)

Willenborg, E., Heidrich, S.: Temmler, A.:
Highlights of the 1st Conference on Laser Polishing LaP 2014, Aachen, Germany
Optical Fabrication and Testing, Kohala Coast, Hawaii, United States, June 22-26, 2014. Fabrication Process Technology I (OTu1B.1) (3 S.) (2014) ISBN: 978-1-55752-747-9

Temmler, A., Pütsch, O., Stollenwerk, J., Willenborg, E., Loosen, P.:
Optical set-up for dynamic superposition of three laser beams for structuring and polishing applications
Optics Express, S.1387-1393, (2014)

Heidrich, S., Richmann, A., Schmitz, P., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K., Loosen, P., Poprawe, R.:
Optics manufacturing by laser radiation
Optics and Lasers in Engineering, S. 34-40 (2014)

Hauschild, D., Kumstel, J., Willenborg, E.:
Produktivität bei der Laserpolitur deutlich steigern
WT-Online 103 (11/12), 1-5 (2013)

Heidrich, S.: 
Fast freeform processing
Mikroniek 53, (3), 48-50 (2013)

Heidrich, S., Richmann, A., Willenborg, E.:
Laser-based optics manufacturing
3rd EOS Conference on Manufacturing of Optical Components (EOSMOC 2013). International Congress Centre Munich (ICM), Germany (2 S.) (2013)

Kumstel, J., Kirsch, B.:
Polishing titanium- and nickel-based alloys using cw-laser radiation
Physics Procedia 41, 362-371 (2013)

Nüsser, C., Sändker, H., Willenborg, E.:
Pulsed laser micro polishing of metals using dual-beam technology
Phys. Procedia 41, 346-355 (2013)

Pütsch, O., Temmler, A., Stollenwerk, J., Willenborg, E., Loosen, P.:
Active optical system for laser structuring of 3D surfaces remelting
Laser Beam Shaping XIV. Ed.: Andrew Forbes, Todd E. Lizotte. Proc. SPIE 8843, 88430D (8 S.) (2013)

Willenborg, E., Ross, I., Kumstel, J., Flemmer, J.:
Werkzeugmaschine für das Laserpolieren
wt Werkstattstechnik online 103, (6), 465-469 (2013)

Heidrich, S., Richmann, A., Willenborg, E.:
Development of a laser based process chain for manufacturing free form optics 
Proc. SPIE 8433, 14 S., (2012)

Heidrich, S., Richmann, A., Willenborg, E.:
Development of manufacturing freeform glass optics with laser radiation
Optical Fabrication and Testing (OFT) Monterey, Ca., June 25, 2012
3 S., (2012)

Heidrich, S., Richmann, A., Willenborg, E.:
Optics fabrication with a laser based process chain 
8th International Conference on Optics-Photonics Design and Fabrication, “ODF’12”, Saint Petersburg,  July, 2-5, 2012, 3 S., (2012)

Teki, R., Kadaksham, A. J., House, M. [et. al.]:
Alternative smoothing techniques to mitigate EUV substrate defectivity 
Proc. SPIE 8322, 1-12, (2012)

Temmler, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Designing surfaces by laser remelting
Proc. of 7th International Conference on MicroManufacturing, Evanston,
(8 S.) (2012)

Temmler, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Laser polishing
SPIE Photonics West – LASE, 21-26 January 2012, Moscone Center, San Francisco, California, USA, Proc. SPIE 8243, (13 S.) (2012)

Flemmer, J.:
3D-Geometrien laserpolieren
Maschine + Werkzeug 9, 1-2, (2011)

Heidrich, S., Willenborg, E., Richmann, A.:
Development of a laser based process chain for manufacturing freeform optics 
Phys. Proced. 12, 519-528, (2011)

Nüsser, C., Wehrmann, I., Willenborg, E.:
Influence of intensity distribution and pulse duration on laser micro polishing 
Phys. Proced. 12, 462-471, (2011)

Richmann, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Laser polishing of spherical quartz lenses 
2nd EOS Conference on Manufacturing of Optical Components (EOSMOC), Munich, Germany: 23 May - 25 May 2011, (2 S) (2011)

Richmann, A., Heidrich, S.:
Polieren und Abtragen von Quarzglas mit CO2-Laserstrahlung 
2. Workshop Glasbearbeitung mit Laserstrahlung, 12. April 2011, Erlangen, (21 S.) (2011)

Temmler, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Design surfaces by laser remelting 
Phys. Proced. 12, 419-430, (2011)

Nüsser, C.
Gepulster Laserstrahl poliert Implantatoberflächen
MM Maschinenmarkt 44, 28-30, (2010)

Ostholt, R., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.
Laser polishing of metallic freeform surfaces
ICALEO 2010. 29th International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro Optics, Anaheim/Ca., September 26-30, 2010. Paper 1705, (7 S.) (2010)

Richmann, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Laser polishing of fused silica
Optical Fabrication and Testing (OFT), Jackson Hole, WY, June 14-17, 2010: Laser Writing in Materials (OTuC), (3. S.) (2010)

Richmann, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Polieren optischer Präzisionsoberflächen mit Laserstrahlung
DGaO Deutsche Gesellschaft für Angewandte Optik, 111. Jahrestagung vom 25.-29.5.2010 in Wetzlar, (2 S.) (2010)

Temmler, A., Graichen, K., Donath, J.:
Laser polishing in medical engineering
Laser Technik 7 (2), 53-57, (2010)

Richmann, A., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Laser polishing of fused silica
Proc. of the 5th Int. WLT Conf. on Lasers in Manufacturing 2009, Munich, June 15th-18 th, 2009. Ed. by A. Ostendorf [u.a.] Stuttgart: AT-Fachverlag, pp. 691-702, (2009)

Ostholt, R., Willenborg, E., Wissenbach, K.:
Laser polishing of metallic freeform surfaces
Proc. of the 5th Int. WLT Conf. on Lasers in Manufacturing 2009, Munich, June 15th-18th, 2009.
Ed. by A. Ostendorf [u.a.]
Stuttgart: AT-Fachverlag, pp. 397-401, (2009)

Willenborg, E.
Polieren mit Laserstrahlung
Kunststoffe 97 , 63-66, (2007)

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Our services cover a wide range of topics. Related topics to polishing and further research and development focuses can be found under the following links.